The recent evolution of the European Union’s politics and policies has demonstrated that differentiation can no longer be treated as an anomaly in the integration process. This has posed a key set of questions to academics and policy-makers on whether, how much and what form of differentiation is not only compatible with but also conducive to a more effective, cohesive and democratic EU.

The project EU IDEA – Integration and Differentiation for Effectiveness and Accountability – addresses these issues and tries to find viable solutions. EU IDEA puts together 15 EU and extra-EU partners in a joint research and dissemination effort coordinated by IAI, starting from January 2019 and lasting for three years.

The project examines the historical and philosophical foundations of differentiation, within and outside the EU (WP1); it addresses differentiation in relation to governance and accountability (WP 2); constitutionalisation and European identity issues (WP 3); it analyses the EU’s practice of differentiation in key policy areas such as the Economic and Monetary Union and the single market, the foreign, security and defense policy, and the area of freedom, security and justice, including migration policy (WP 4-5-6), keeping a special focus on the implications of Brexit (WP 7); and it investigates the different national visions as regards differentiation, both at the level of political elites and citizens (WP 8).

The results of the research will be used to define the criteria – institutional, political and social – to analyse future scenarios of differentiated integration (or disintegration) and to draw up recommendations to European and national institutions (WP 9).

Funding: European Union – Horizon 2020

Настани поврзани со проектот


Europol and Differentiated Integration

Europol has become a hub for differentiated integration. Initially a small anti-drugs unit, the EU’s police agency is now a fully-fledged body where law enforcement agencies from all around the world work together. Seen through the organisational dimension of differentiation, police cooperation through Europol has shaped differentiated integration modalities...


Uniformity and Differentiation in the Fundamentals of EU Membership: The EU Rule of Law Acquis in the Pre- and Post-accession Contexts

The paper discusses the nexus between the EU pre-accession conditionality and membership obligations to guarantee respect for the rule of law as a founding value of the EU, common to the Member States. It does so through the prism of the notions of legal uniformity and differentiation. The paper...


Is the EU’s Accession Conditionality Paving the Way for a More Integrated Rule of Law Policy in the EU?

EU enlargement has been one of the principal vectors of differentiation in the process of European integration due to transitional opt-outs from some obligations (and privileges) of membership (Schimmelfennig 2014). Also, EU accession conditionality has demanded compliance with conditions which in some cases have entailed much stricter obligations for...


EU IDEA WP3 Workshop in Berlin

On January 23 2020, a coordinative workshop under the Horizon 2020 project “Integration and Differentiation for Effectiveness and Accountability“ was held at the premises of the Institut für Europäische Politik in Berlin, Germany. The workshop gathered researchers from the projects’ Working Package (WP) 3, which analyses the effects of...


IDSCS at the Executive Board meeting of the EU IDEA project

Researchers Zoran Nechev and Ivan Damjanovski from the Institute for Democracy ‘Societas Civilis’ were present at the Executive Board meeting of the “EU IDEA – Integration and Differentiation for Effectiveness and Accountability” project on 11 April 2019 at the University of Groningen. They also attended the workshop on working...